Naïve Realism

Naïve realism, in social psychology, refers to the human intuitive sense that we observe or perceive the world in an unbiased way and objectively—“as it is”—instead of knowing that we are seeing the world from our own perspective, that is, as a subjective construction of the world and as an interpretation of the actuality.

This phenomenon has two significant implications: One, that others are perceiving and seeing the world in the manner as we are seeing it, as long as others are exposed to same information and are thinking rationally. Two, we tend to believe that others who are seeing the world differently must be the ones who are biased, uniformed, ignorant, unreasonable, or distorted. Famous line of George Carlin summarises the concept, “Have you ever noticed that everyone driving slower than you is an idiot, and anyone going faster than you is a maniac?”


The term naïve realism was first introduced by social psychologist Lee Ross and his colleagues in 1990s. The Handbook of Social Psychology acknowledged naïve realism as one of “four hard-won insights about human perception, thinking, motivation and behavior that … represent important, indeed foundational, contributions of social psychology.” Naïve realism provides a theoretical foundation for many other cognitive biases, which refers to systematic errors in thinking, and decision making.


Ross, L., Lepper, M., & Ward, A. History of Social Psychology: Insights, Challenges, and Contributions to Theory and Application. In S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gillbert, G. Lindzey, & A. E. Jongsma (2010) Handbook of Social Psychology. Vol. 1. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley

The Galatea Effect

Believe in meThe Galatea effect is named after Greek mythological story of Pygmalion and Galatea. It is a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby an individual’s actual performance or completion of a task is affected by his or her belief and trust in his or her abilities and potential for success. When an individual holds a belief and has confidence that he or she will be able to perform good, this self-belief in turn leads to actual success. What happens is that expectations themselves work as self-fulfilling prophecies. Just like in the Pygmalion effect, where a teacher’s high expectations from his or her pupil leads to high performance, the Galatea effect impacts individuals’ ability to finish a task, meet deadlines and also their ability to work as a team.

Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID)

People with Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID), previously known as extremely picky eating, fail to eat enough food to maintain their daily energy requirements. Common challenges faced by ARFID patients include difficulty in digesting food; avoidance of specific types of food textures, colors, and smells; eating at an abnormally slow pace, or having a general lack of appetite.

Orthorexia Nervosa

healthy-eatingOrthorexia Nervosa is another eating disorder which includes unhealthy obsession with eating healthy food, and placing oneself on seriously restricted diets, which may lead to serious nutritional deficiencies and can harm daily life of an individual. Unlike other eating disorders, orthorexia typically focuses on the quality of food quality, rather than the quantity. Individuals with orthorexia are hardly focused on losing weight, unlike individuals with anorexia and bulimia. They have rather an excessive fixation with the food “purity,” and are obsessed with the advantages of healthy eating.

Binge Eating Disorder

woman eatingBinge Eating Disorder, commonly known as BED, is an eating disorder characterized by frequent and recurrent episodes of eating large quantities of food but without subsequent purging episodes, such as vomiting. Although it can be severe and life-threatening, it is a treatable disorder. Individual suffering from BED may feel the inability to stop eating even if they want to. It is sometimes also described as Compulsive Eating. The individual suffering from it eats large amounts of food often very quickly and to the point where a person feels uneasily full in a short period of time. These episodes of binge eating are characteristically categorized as happening, on an average, a minimum of, twice per week, for a duration of six months.

Nudge

Baby elephant nudgedThe concept of ‘nudge’ was first made popular by two American researchers Richard Thaler (economist) and Cass Sunstein (legal scholar) in the book Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness (2008). Nudge is a concept from behavioral science, behavioral economics, and political theory, which suggests that decision making and behavior of an individual or group can be influenced by positive reinforcement and indirect suggestion. It is different from other methods of eliciting compliance like, education, enforcement or legislature.

The principle of nudge increases the probability that a given person will make a certain choice, or will behave in a certain manner, by modifying the environment so that unconscious or automatic processes of cognition get triggered to elicit support for the desired result.

It is believed that there is often a gap between the intention and behavior of an individual, in other words both are not always in alignment, which is termed as value-action gap. And that people have a tendency to often take actions that probably are not favorable to them, despite being aware that such actions are not in their best interest. Thus, nudges are aimed at influencing such choices, but at the same time, the power to choose still remains with the individual. In this senses, nudges are quite helpful as humans don’t always think and take decisions in a logical manner and most of these decisions are often unconscious, without weighing the costs and benefits of these decisions and choices. So in an attempt to bring positive change in the behavior of individuals, tapping on these instinctive styles of thinking is required. This is what nudge does.

A lot of British and American politicians have been influenced by nudge. Numerous nudge units exist around the world at both national level (UK, Germany, Japan and others) and international level (e.g., World Bank, United Nations, and the European Commission). Nudge theory has application in various fields, like government, healthcare, and business.

Diabulimia

diabulimiaDIABULIMIA, also known as ED-DMT1 or Eating Disorder-Diabetes Mellitus Type 1, is a type of eating disorder that affects people with type-1 diabetes. People suffering from diabulimia deliberately restrict insulin in an attempt to lose weight. Although there is no distinct diagnostic code for diabulimia, in DSM-5, based on the eating disorder behavior and manipulation of insulin, diabulimia can present with features of both bulimia and anorexia. Diabulimia can be classified under Other Specified Eating Disorder (OSFED) in DSM-5.

Rumination Disorder

Rumination-disorderRUMINATION DISORDER, also known as rumination syndrome, is a rare and chronic eating disorder. Individuals with Rumination Disorder unintentionally and repeatedly regurgitate food before swallowing it again, chewing it once more or spitting it out. They often spit up food from their stomach; re-chew partially digested or undigested food unintentionally and either re-swallow or spit it out. As per the reports of the patients, since the food hasn’t yet been digested, it isn’t acidic, as vomit is and tastes normal. Rumination usually happens soon after eating, at every meal but it appears to be the result of increased abdominal pressure.

Watch and flowers

Interesting Facts about Human Memory

1. The human mind can form, amplify, or reinvent a memory.

2. Short term memory (STM) and long term memory (LTM) are two different types of memories. Short term memory can hold 7±2 things for up to 20 seconds. Information received from the environment, first passes through short term memory before it becomes the part of long term memory.

3. Humans start to form memories when they are in the womb. This memory is described as prenatal or fetal memory. Various experiments have revealed that babies are capable of remembering sounds that were played to them during pregnancy.

4. The storage capacity of the human brain is practically limitless. Human brain can store approximately 2.5 petabytes of data, which means that human brain has as much memory as the entire internet.

5. Apparently, aging does not seem to have any direct effect on memory. People experience memory loss during old age merely because they use it less as they age.

6. The human mind can remember things that didn’t even occur. This obvious recollection of something that one did not actually experience is known as false memory. This phenomenon was demonstrated in an experiment where the interviewer was successfully able to convince 70% of the participants that they had committed a crime, when, in fact, they had not.

7. In the absence of rehearsal, memories become harder to access, this means that memories, in actual, do not decay.

8. During jet lag, certain stress hormones are released, which have been found to damage the memory.

9. While a person is drunk, he or she is not capable of creating memories.

10. There is no specific region in the brain where a given memory exists. Instead, it is distributed in different regions of the brain.

11. Memory is reconstructed from distinct fragments in order to be recalled.

12. Human memories are prioritized by the emotions. Emotions attach new information and function as an indicator of significance. Memories that are emotionally intense can last longer in the mind and can be recalled much more clearly.

13. Procrastination is an important tool of memory. Not focusing on something actively gives the subconscious time to work on the ideas in the background while the person performs other things.

Bulimia Nervosa

bulimia purgingA potentially life-threatening eating disorder, BULIMIA NERVOSA is characterized by binge eating followed by purging. People with Bulimia Nervosa often eat a large quantity of food in one go. This binge eating episode accompanied by a sense of loss of control of the overeating process causes a feeling of guilt and recurrent inappropriate behavior intended to prevent weight gain. This phenomenon is called purging, which includes, in addition to the use of purgatives, such measures as dietary fasting, excessive exercising, use of laxatives or self-induced vomiting, and even taking of thyroid medication to increase metabolism.

Anorexia Nervosa

Thin womanA person suffering from ANOREXIA NERVOSA often experiences a strong fear of gaining weight which leads to a refusal to maintain a healthy body weight or adequate nutritional status. Anorexia nervosa is typically associated with an erroneous complaint of being fat; weight loss up to 85% of ideal body weight (IBW); disturbance of body image; and in post-menarcheal females, the absence of at least three consecutive menstrual periods. An individual suffering from anorexia follows extreme steps to maintain a low body weight. He or she may try to lose weight by excessive exercise, or by using laxatives and vomiting as measure to get rid of the food from the body. It is considered one of the deadliest psychiatric disorders. In the absence of effective treatment, around 20%, of the people with anorexia die.

 

The Lowball Technique

Handshake

THE LOWBALL TECHNIQUE was named after, and first studied in 1978 by the US social psychologist Robert Cialdini, who found it while he was being trained as a car salesman. A technique of persuasion, it refers to a technique to elicit and raise compliance. It is mostly employed in commercial dealings. The technique is often brought to use to persuade a prospective buyer to accept a request. The proposal is so appealing that the buyer accepts it. Then just before the offer is being finalized, the salesman will change the original offer and reveal the hidden-cost making the original proposal less appealing. But as, the buyer has already committed to the offer, he or she will feel compelled to accept the second offer as well.

Cialdini and other researchers did a field experiment where researchers at first tried to persuade students to agree to volunteer to serve as experimental participants; 56 per cent students agreed to participate in the study. They then told the volunteers that the study was scheduled for 7 a.m., and volunteers were given the opportunity to withdraw. However, none of them did, and 95 per cent of them actually turned up at the appointed time. On the other hand, when a control group were asked to participate and were told the unsocial timing of the experiment up front, only 24 per cent agreed to participate.

Pseudobulbar Affect

Arthur Fleck's uncontrollable laughterThose of you who have watched Joaquin Phoenix’s Oscar-winning performance in Joker, would agree that one of the most striking traits of Arthur Fleck’s character is his uncontrollable laughter. Although the movie never names the specific conditions Fleck is diagnosed with, his fits of laughter are likely based on a real disorder called pseudobulbar affect.

Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) or emotional incontinence is a condition characterized by episodes of uncontrollable laughing or crying or some other emotional displays. PBA may occur in people with neurologic disorder such as multiple sclerosis or brain injuries, or stroke. As the involuntary outbursts can last from seconds to several minutes at a time, PBA can feel extremely alienating for the person living with it. Patients may find themselves crying or laughing uncontrollably at something that is only moderately sad or funny, respectively. These laughing or crying periods not only land the patients up in uncomfortable situations, but are also exhausting and painful too. Severe symptoms of PBA can lead to embarrassment, social isolation, anxiety, and depression. The condition can be quite disruptive to the patient’s life but fortunately, it is treatable. As with any sharp shift in mood, the most important thing to do is consult a professional as soon as possible.

 

17 Interesting Psychological Facts About Love

1. Most of us tend to be attracted to people who are similar to ourselves.

2. We ignore the ones who adore us and pay attention to those who ignore us.

3. Looking into each other’s eyes can make strangers fall in love.

4. It only takes up to 4 minutes to decide whether you like someone or not.

5. Falling in love has a similar neurological effect as getting high on cocaine.

6. Butterflies in the stomach are real and they’re actually caused by adrenaline.

7. The longer you hide your feelings for someone, the harder you fall for that person.

8. 90% people text things they can’t say in person.

9. People at the same level of attractiveness are more likely to end up together.

10. Romantic love is biochemically indistinguishable from having a severe obsessive-compulsive disorder.

11. Feeling ignored causes the same chemical effect as that of an injury.

12. The very last person on your mind before you fall asleep and the first person on your mind when you wake up is either the reason for your happiness or your pain.

13. Looking at a picture of a loved one can help to relieve pain and stress.

14. The brain treats rejection like physical pain.

15. It is possible to die from a broken heart. It is called Stress Cardiomyopathy.

16. Once you fall in love, there is no going back to being friends again. So, you can’t be a friend with the person you loved after you broke up. If you can still stay as friends, you have never been in love with that person.

17. Hearts have nothing to do with the feeling of ‘being in love.’ It is only a chemical reaction happening in your brain.

human psychology

12 Interesting Psychological Facts

1. People tend to be happier when they are kept busy, as this prevents them from thinking about the negative things in life.

2. People with low self-esteem tend to humiliate others.

3. Intelligent people tend to have less friends than the average person. The smarter the person is, the more selective they become.

4. Optimistic beliefs about the future can protect people from physical and mental illness.

5. 68% of the people suffer from Phantom Vibration Syndrome, the feeling that one’s phone is vibrating when it’s not.

6. People are more honest when physically tired. This is why people confess things during late night conversations.

7. Happiness, anger, sadness, fear, disgust, and surprise are the six emotions that are universally expressed.

8. Religious practices, like prayer and attending services, is associated with lower levels of psychological distress.

9. Convincing yourself you slept well tricks your brain into thinking it did.

10. Creative people tend to get bored easily as they can’t work on a similar work type for a longer time.

11. Singing reduces feelings of depression and anxiety.

12. Being with positive and happy people keeps you happier.